What is Dark Matter and Dark Energy?

What is Dark Matter?

The dark matter is invisible, scientists have been trying to understand the dark matter of the year. To say, three-fourths of the universe is made of it, but see that it does not appear anywhere.

More than ninety percent of the eternal galaxies of the universe are unknowingly dark matter, which is neither element nor light nor do they reflect. Astronomers also see only the sixth part of the galaxies. Research in Max Planck Institute at Heidelberg Girish Kulkarni has worked on the last ten years of submission data. According to Girish, “What is Dark Matter, all these people want to understand but no one knows.” But I can tell that what we need for a dark matter and why people are called Dirk Matter, Dark Matter. ”

If the matter of whole galaxies and stars is added, then it is only about four percent of the universe, the rest is dark matter, the unknowable element. Scientists say that many times they collide with the usual elements in experiments.
Girish tries to explain that what is the dark matter, “There are many experiments happening nowadays, the things we see in our everyday life, the things that are made of., Which are our elements, hydrogen, helium, carbon And all this … it is impossible to understand these basic elements. The results of those experiments and so on … a new type of material is required and we call it dark matter. ”

When the galaxies were not there

There were no galaxies in the universe 13 billion years ago. Scientists have been aware of this fact recently. That is, what appears today, he did not see before. When the universe was created then suddenly there was an electron and proton flood. Researchers estimate that galaxies were formed by vibrations in these electron protons. But it is not known why the vibration has happened.

The prestigious CERN laboratory in Switzerland, which searches for the Boson particle next year, is going to start using the search of dark matter. The Large Hadron Collider wants to reach that speed, from where the energy produced can answer the question of dark matter. Hubert Kroha of the Max Planck Institute in Munich says, “There are many questions to look for, we have many ideas but the last answer can come only from the experiment and these answers can come from the same LHC experiment. But, is it that we will get new indications, which will be different from the standard model, which will give us answers to those questions which are still in front of us. ”
According to a theory of CERN, dark matter particles can be so small that they do not come in the grip. In such condition, if they take some energy with them also they fly. This will know about their existence.

What is Dark Energy?

Dark Energy This theme is similar to the story of a science-fictive film. Dark energy, a mysterious force that has not been understood, but with the influence of this force the objects of the universe are becoming far and away from each other.

This is a hypothetical force whose pressure is negative and is spread throughout the universe. According to the theory of relativity, the effect of this negative pressure is similar to the opposite effect of gravity.

Shyam Energy came to light in 1998, when two groups of Space Scientists conducted a survey on the stars (Supernova) (1) passing through the process of an explosion in various galaxies. They found that the light illumination of this supernova is less than expected light, it means that they are far more than they should have had. It could only mean that the expansion of the universe’s expansion has increased somewhat earlier! (Also see red deviation)

Until earlier it was believed that the speed of the expansion of the universe is gradually decreasing due to the force of gravity. But by the analysis of supernovae, it was known that some mystical force took the force of gravitational force, acting on the opposite and expanding the expansion of the universe. It was an amazing, wonderful search.

At first, scientists doubt the credibility of the results of this experiment. They thought that the light glow of the supernova could be reduced due to a gas or dust cloud, or it may be that scientists’ estimation of supernova’s light glow is wrong. But after checking the available statistics carefully, it was discovered that there exists the existence of a mysterious force, which is what we call dark energy today.

Well, this idea is not brand new. Einstein has incorporated the cosmological constant, the force showing a per gravitational influence in his theory of relativity. But Einstein himself and later other scientists also believed that this Cosmological Constant is only for a mathematical simplicity, which has a much less relation to reality. Until 1990 no one thought that this cosmic constant can be a reality too.

Says Virginia Trimble of the University of South Carolina University
“It is not right to say Dark Energy per gravity. This force does not work in contrast to gravity. It behaves exactly like the theory of relativity that he should do according to it. According to the principle of relativity, the pressure of this force is negative. ”

According to him
“Suppose the universe is a big balloon. When this balloon is spread, then the detail of this dark energy decreases in detail and the balloon spreads a little further. This is because Dark Energy produces negative pressure (2). While inside the balloon it is trying to pull the balloon, the smaller the density, the balloon will be pushed inward towards it, which will increase more. This process is happening in the expansion of the universe. ”

The example of supernovae suggests that acceleration of the expansion of the universe began 5 trillion years ago. At that time the galaxies had gone so far that the effect of Dark Energy on the influence of gravitational force had been greater. (The focus of attention is that the gravitational force pulls the various objects on its side, the energy that only takes them away from each other). After the time the speed of expansion of the universe is increasing with the influence of Dark Energy. Now it seems that this momentum will increase for indefinitely. This means that after every quarter of the year, every celestial body will turn away from one another faster and faster and we will be left alone.

This new theory of Dark Energy has disappointed scientists, they have to accept the concept of an unexpected and completely new universe. They already have accepted the concept of Dark Matter. According to today’s calculation, this body substance is more than the actual substance. It is a substance that has not been felt in any laboratory till date but evidence of its occurrence has been found. Now the advent of Dark energy is similar to sprinkling salt on the wound.

According to space scientists, the universe is made up of three things: ordinary matter, blacksmith, and Dark Energy. We just know about the simple matter. How do you feel when you hear that 90-95% of the universe is composed of two substances which nobody knows?

To understand quantum physics, two generations have been found. This time it was about the science that we could prove to be used in the laboratory. Understanding a substance and energy that can not be seen cannot be made in the laboratory, how difficult is it?

But Shyam Energy has solved a mystery that was produced by cosmic radiation. Data from recent experiments on the deviation of cosmic radiation intensifies the theory of the infinite expansion of the universe. But for the scientists, the force behind this expansion was a puzzle, Dark Energy is probably the solution to this.

Regardless of the existence of Dark Energy in any form, it is necessary to balance the geometry of the universe and the amount of total matter of the universe. The calculation of cosmic microwave background (CMB), indicates that the universe is almost flat. For this size of the universe, the ratio of mass and energy should be equal to a certain Critical Density. According to the cosmic radiation calculation, only 30% of the revolutionary density is equal to the amount of total matter of the universe (by combining Bryan and black matter). This means that the energy of the universe should be 70% of the total mass of the universe.

Recent studies have shown that the universe was constructed by 74% percent of the energy, 22% from the organic matter, and only 4% of the ordinary matter. And we know about this 4% simple matter.

The nature of Dark Energy is a matter of thought. This homogeneous force is the force of low density, which does not react to any other fundamental forces (3) other than gravity. Its density is very low approximately 10-29 g / cm3. The investigation in its laboratory is almost impossible.

The most valid theory to understand the energy of dark energy is the cosmological constant principle:
This is the theory that is proposed by Einstein. It is simple, according to this, in the space of the Volume of Space, there is an inner fundamental energy. It is a cosmic constant called lambda that is called lambda. This equation of mass and energy is related to the equation of e = mc2, this proves that gravitational influence should be on the cosmic constant. It is also sometimes called vacuum energy because it is the density of the vacuum’s energy. According to the calculation of scientists, the value of the cosmic constant is 10-29 g / cm3.

The cosmic constant is a negative pressure force which is equal to its energy density, which is why it gives acceleration to the expansion of the universe.

Shyam Energy’s Influence on the Future of the Universe

As we have seen before, the example of supernovae shows that acceleration of the expansion of the universe started 5 trillion years ago. Before this, it was thought that the speed of expansion of the universe is decreasing as a result of gravity of the Bayernic and the dark matter. In the expanded universe, the density of the body of matter is depleted more quickly than the Dark Energy. Thereby, the energy of the dark energy remains heavy. When the size of the universe doubles up, the density of the body gets halfway while the density of the dark energy remains the same. According to the theory of relativity, then it is Cosmological Constant.

If the speed of the extension continues to grow like this then the galaxies will go across the cosmic horizon and the sight will stop. This will be because their speed will be more than the speed of light. This is not a violation of the law of relativity. Earth will not have any effect on its galaxy, but all the rest of the universe will go away.

There are some ideas about the end of the universe, one of which is that the effect of Dark Energy will increase, and at one time it will be more than the central forces and other fundamental forces. In this case, the Dark Energy will break the solar system, the galaxy, from anybody to the molecule atom. This condition will be Big Rip.

The second fantasy is of Big Crunch, in which the effects of Dark Energy will end after a boundary and gravity will dominate it. This will give rise to a contraction process. In the end, a great contraction will change the whole universe to one point. This point will give rise to a new universe by a great explosion.

(1) Supernova – At the end of the lifespan of a few stars, when all the fuel (hydrogen) burned down, an explosion occurs. This explosion turns them into a very bright star called Supernova or Nova.

(2) negative pressure – that pressure is less than the pressure of surrounding fluid (like air).

(3) Basic force: gravity, electromagnetic force, weak central force, strong central force.


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  1. Another explanation for dark energy is that it is a new kind of dynamical energy fluid or field, something that fills all of space but something whose effect on the expansion of the universe is the opposite of that of matter and normal energy. Some theorists have named this “quintessence,” after the fifth element of the Greek philosophers. But, if quintessence is the answer, we still don’t know what it is like, what it interacts with, or why it exists. So the mystery continues.

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